The discovery of unrecorded civil records of Lancaster County,

Pennyslvania, in Augusta County, Virginia, and in the archives of the

Library of Virginia leads to insights into the Mennonite families of Mumma

and Baughman during the 1700's

The Two Wives of George Anthony Mumma

by Douglas M. Mumma

Recent information has been gathered and analyzed that leads to the somewhat startling conclusion that George Anthony Mumma, the 1732 immigrant who arrived in Philadelphia[1] with his father, Leonard Mumma, had two wives. Many civil records about George's life were recorded in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, where he lived, but none suggested that he had a wife prior to Barbara Weber/Weaver.[2]

This discovery was initiated in 1999, when Robert A. Moomaw engaged the services of Nancy Sorrells, a Virginia genealogist, to do research in the records of Augusta County, Virginia, about a Christian Mummer who lived in that county. She found several documents that included a George Mumma’s name. A careful examination of these documents, coupled with other Lancaster documents, led to the conclusion that George Anthony Mumma had a wife by the name of Alice (or Elsibed) prior to his marriage to Barbara Weber/Weaver. From that union, George and Alice had a daughter named Elizabeth.

Case of Hite vs. Ready

Jost Hite had been involved in numerous land acquisitions and subsequent lawsuits due to his failure to pre­sent valid titles to the lands he sold. In Frederick County a very large lawsuit between Jost Hite and Lord Thomas Fairfax involving 40,000 acres.[3] One case heard in Augusta County involved about 4,000 acres, including the 1,500 acres which Hite sold to John Baughman in 1737.  A George Mumma(h) is mentioned in two quit claim deeds filed in this suit.

From an examination of the first quit claim deed[4] filed in 1763, we learn that a John Baughman of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, purchased 1,585 acres of land in Orange County, Virginia in 1737 from Jost Hite, but Hite never conveyed title to Baughman. Created and signed in Lancaster County, the document conveyed title of Baughman’s Virginia land to one of his daughters and her husband in the settlement of John's estate. A careful search of Lancaster County deeds did not reveal this deed. Another copy of this deed has also been discovered in the Virginia State Library with the survey of his land.[5] The reasons for the various court actions are not important, however, in determining the existence of George's first wife.

John's six daughters are named in the document with their husbands: Alice Baughman, deceased, who married George Mumma of Lancaster County; Barbara Baughman, who married Benjamin Lehman of Frederick County, Virginia; Mary Baughman, deceased, who married Nicholas Bower of Lancaster County; Ann Baughman, deceased, who married Sebastain Weidman[6] of Lancaster County; Elizabeth Baughman, who married Joseph Charle[7] of Lancaster County; Christina Baughman, who married Nicholas Young of Lancaster County. Barbara and her husband, Benjamin Lehman, took possession of this Virginia land as part of the settlement of John Baughman’s estate. The other heirs gave them a "quit claim" for £100 pounds. All of the heirs signed the document. George Mumma signed his name with an "X".

I am only aware of one George Mumma living in Lancaster County at this time period who would have been the correct age.  John Baughman died about 1757.[8]  Assuming that this George married the eldest daughter of John Baughman when George was a young adult, then George's birthdate would have likely been before 1727. Thus, this George Mumma was either the well-known George Anthony Mumma or a new, unidentified Mumma immigrant. But we knew that George Mumma married Barbara Weber/Weaver, not an Alice Baughman.[9] I found a 1995 book about Frederick County, Virginia, which discussed Northern Neck warrants and surveys.[10] and identified a George Mumma as the husband of Alice Baughman.

The next quit claim document found in the Augusta County helps identify the George Mumma mentioned in the other deeds. This document, dated August 13, 1770, was created and signed in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, by the heirs of John Baughman.[11]  It too was copied and filed in the Hite vs. Ready case in Augusta County. Again, it was not found in Lancaster County. In this document we find several differences from the previous document that was signed seven years earlier, namely some spelling differences of names, probably due to the transcription of the original document which was likely written in German. Nicholas and Marie (previously Mary) Young had moved to York County in the intervening seven years. Benjamin and Barbara Lehman were living in Frederick County, Virginia.

One heir was listed as "Elsibed Baughman, deceased, who married George Mummah of Lancaster County." George's surname has a "h" added to the end, a fairly common way of interpreting and spelling George Mumma's surname on many early documents in Lancaster County. The spelling of his wife's name has also changed from Alice to Elsibed. The name change of George’s wife initially concerned me. However, after performing a search of the Internet regarding German-English name associations, I discovered that Elsibed and Alice are both German nicknames for “Elisabeth”.[12]

The most important fact in this document, however, is the signature of George  Mumma. He signs with the mark, "IMA". As far as I know, George Anthony Mumma is the only person who used these initials when signing. A number of documents, including his will,[13] show these initials. These initials clearly prove that this George Mumma is indeed, George Anthony Mumma of Hempfield Township, Lancaster County. He was the son of the immigrant Leonard Mumma and he had a wife name Alice (Elsibed) Baughman.

Lancaster County Records

A further examination of the Lancaster County records reveals additional data about John Baughman, who died intestate about October 8, 1757 and other persons related to George Anthony Mumma.

The bond[14] on the estate of John Baughman shows that the letters of administration were issued to George Mumma and Nicholas Bower, which clearly connects George Mumma and Nicholas Bower with John Baughman. From the previous quit claim documents, we know that these two men had married daughters of John Baughman. George and Nicholas are also shown as neighbors in Hempfield Township on the original land warrants[15] issued by the Penns. In addition, J. Ross Baughman wrote[16] that John Baughman was closely associated with the Smith warrant which George Mumma purchased upon George Smith's death.[17] This further establishes that George Mumma and John Baughman had been neighbors.

However, another mystery now unfolds. Since John Baughman died intestate, his heirs were determined by law. Only living descendants would share in John's estate, namely his children or the spouses of any of his children who died, if there were issue from these marriages. Since George is identified as an heir of John Baughman's estate, then George and Alice Mumma must have had one or more children who were still alive in 1757 when John died. Which of George's children were born from this marriage of George Anthony Mumma and Alice Baughman?

By examining four documents I believe we have evidence that points to at least one of his children listed in his will as being the product of this first marriage to Alice Baughman:

1) Will of George Anthony Mumma:[18] dated April 9, 1785; probated 29 July 1786.

George writes his will and identifies his ten children, as well as the husbands of his married daughters. While the birth order is not listed, he does list his daughters and sons separately in what we believe to be the birth order for each group. The daughters were Elizabeth who married John Carle; Magdalena, who was the widow of Jacob Strickler; Juliana, the wife of David Mellinger; then Maria and Barbara, who are unmarried. The sons were Christian, George, Henry, David, and Jacob. Jacob was known to be “not of age” when the will was written and presumed to be the youngest child. George signs his will with his distinctive mark "IMA".

There are several unusual points about his will. He makes bequests which are not evenly balanced between the children. The oldest son Christian receives only £5 gold because he had “previously sufficiently provided him with divers sums of money.” He also gives £50 gold or silver to his eldest daughter, Elizabeth, the wife of John Carle. Then he makes very specific bequests of land to his remaining sons. Lastly, he distributes the remainder of his estate to be divided equally between nine named children. He specifically excludes the eldest son, Christian, from an equal share of the estate, which suggests he felt that he had helped Christian sufficiently as he stated or there may have been a strained relationship between them. He gives his eldest daughter, Elizabeth, an extra £50 from his estate of £2,205. No explanation for this imbalance is stated.

2) Will of Barbara Mumma:[19] dated October 24, 1788; probated November 29, 1788.

The wife of George Anthony Mumma also carefully names all of her children. In that intervening time of three years, the daughter Maria (Mary) married Jacob Hertzler; the widow of Jacob Strickler, Magdalena, married again to an Abraham Histand; and the daughter named Elizabeth, the wife of John Carle, is not mentioned. Barbara signs with her mark, "B". The only unusual feature of her will is that she provides the girls who remained at home helping their parents “over their age”, additional sums of money for each year they stayed home. It has always been assumed that Elizabeth (Mumma) Carle was missing from her mother's will because she had died in the intervening three years.

3) Will of Jacob Hertzler:[20] dated April 22, 1793; probated January 18 1794.

It is instructive to examine the will of Jacob Hertzler, the husband of Maria Mumma, the daughter of George and Barbara. We discover that Maria died between November 1788 (when her mother, Barbara, died) and April 1793 (when Jacob wrote his will). It appears that no children came from Jacob's marriage to Maria because none are mentioned in his will. After Maria's death, he married Ann Elizabeth who is living. Maria's exact date of death is not known.

In his will, Jacob gives the money due his wife, Maria, from her brother, Henry Mumma, to the children of two of her brothers, George Mumma, Jr., and David Mumma. Henry was indebted to his siblings through his father's will. This George Jr.'s children are well identified in Richard Huffman's book.[21] However I am not aware that any of David's children have ever been identified or even that David had a wife. It is not clear why Jacob gave money to just two of his wife's siblings because additional nieces and nephews of Maria were living. Then we make a startling and critical discovery. Jacob also gives £5 to the wife of John Carle. (From George Anthony Mumma's will, we know that John Carle's wife was Elizabeth Mumma.) Therefore, from this will we learn that Elizabeth Mumma was still alive when her mother, Barbara Mumma, wrote her will and died in 1788.  The reason for this bequest to Elizabeth is also not stated.

4) Estate Administration of Jacob Hertzler:[22] filed December 31, 1794.

Elizabeth (Mumma) Carle is listed again in the December 1794 distribution of Jacob Hertzler's estate as receiving her £5. This proves she was still alive in Decembe 1794. This further supports the fact she couldn't have died between 1785 and 1788, the time between the writing of her father’s will and the writing of her supposed mother's will. Therefore, why did her supposed mother, Barbara Mumma, not include Elizabeth in her will? One obvious answer is that Elizabeth was not Barbara's daughter, but the daughter of George's first marriage to Alice (Elsibed) Baughman. This was likely why her father gave Elizabeth additional compensation of £50 when he wrote his will, knowing that his second wife, Barbara, would probably not provide for Elizabeth in her will. The additional gift of £50 to Elizabeth would have been considered to be a large amount of money in that time period.


I believe that the evidence proves that George Anthony Mumma (b. ca 1722) was first married to Alice (Elsibed) Baughman, the daughter of John Baughman and she died prior to 1750[23] when George's second wife, Barbara Weber, signs a property transfer deed. It should be noted that George also signed this document with his unusual and distinctive mark, "IMA". Also, George Anthony Mumma and Alice (Elsibed) Baughman had at least one child named Elizabeth who married John Carle.

This research effort clearly demonstrates that finding documentation and evidence may require searches in obscure archives in different locales and that such evidence may be found hiding in the records of collateral lines.




[1]Ralph B. Strassburger & William J. Hinke, Pennsylvania German Pioneers, (Norristown, Pa: Pennsylvania German Societym 1933), Vol. 1, pages pp.71-78, lists an "Anthony Momma" as a boy under 16 years.  Research has clearly shown that this "Anthony Momma" and George Mumma, the son of Leonard Mumma who lived in Hempfield Township, are one in the same person. Hence, he has been given the name "George Anthony Mumma" to easily identify him, even though he never used the middle name, Anthony.

[2]Robert A. Moomaw, Moomaw, Mumma, Mumaw, Mumaugh Genealogy, (Houston, TX, Author, 1990).

[3]Cecil O'Dell, Pioneers of Old Frederick County, Virginia, (Marceline, Missouri: Walsworth Publishing Co.,1995).

[4]New Style Drawer 40, Quit Claim Deed [2 June 1763], Hite vs Ready, Chancery Court Records Room, Augusta County Courthouse, Staunton, Virginia. Quit claim deed signed by the heirs of John Baughman to Benjamin Lehman and Barbara (Baughman) Lehman.

[5]Peggy Shomo Joyner, Abstracts of Virginia's Northern Neck Warrants & Surveys - Frederick County 1747-1780 Volume II, (Portsmith, VA, Author, 1985), p. 38 which lists the extracted deed information regarding Balser Counts, assignee of Benjamin Lehman, surveyed on 20 Nov 1751 for John Baughman. It says the deed is included in the file - 2 June 1763.

[6]Deed K-26, Lancaster County Archives, Lancaster, Pa. Sebastian Weidman (m. Ann Baughman, sister of Alice) sold George Anthony Mummah 100 acres in Hempfield Township in 1768.

[7]From the 1763 quit claim deed (see note 4) we know that Joseph Carle married Elizabeth Baughman. From George Anthony Mumma's will (see note 13) we know that his daughter married a John Carle. One might speculate on whether a relationship existed between Joseph and John Carle, i.e. brothers, father and son, or cousins?

[8]Bond 1-127, Lancaster County Archives, Letters of Administration of John Baughman's estate. George Mumma and Nicholas Bower were made administrators of John Baughman's estate on Oct. 8, 1757. Inventory and distribution documents should have been filed within a year of letters of administration. In Mar. 2000, I asked Lester K. Mumma, Jr. to look for additional estate documents, but he was unsuccessful. To insure that all locations were investigated, I hired Peggy Manning, a certified genealogist in Lancaster County, who, along with the Lancaster County Archives staff, combed the files without success.

[9]See note 2.

[10]See note 3, p. 401.

[11]New Style drawer 40, Quit Claim Deed [August 1770], Hite vs Ready, Chancery Court Records Room, Augusta County Courthouse, Staunton, Virginia. Quit claim deed signed by the heirs of John Baughman to Benjamin Lehman and Barbara (Baughman) Lehman.

[12]Internet Web Site. E-Vornamen (Formen, Bedetung und Herkunft "Nomen est Omen" at <www://>. This German web site provides an association of given names with various nicknames and alternate variations. Origins and meanings of names are also listed.

[13]Will E-1-368, Lancaster County Archives. Will of George Anthony Mumma, dated Apr. 9, 1785, probated July 29, 1786.

[14]See note 8.

[15]Staff, "West Hempfield Township with Map of Original Land Draughts," Journal of the Lancaster County Historical Society, 67:2 (Spring 1963), 80-81.

[16]J. Ross Baughman, Harvest Time: History of the Swiss, German & Dutch Folk in Early America named Buaghman, Layman, Moyer, Huff, and Others, (Edinburg, Va, Shenandoah History Publishers, 1994), p 49.

[17]Deed O-562 Lancaster County Archives. George Mumma purchases 293 acres from the estate of George Smith.

[18]See note 13.

[19]Will F-1-78. Lancaster County Archives. Will of Barbara Mumma, dated Oct. 24, 1788, probated Nov. 29, 1788.

[20]Will Y-2-310, Lancaster County Archives. Will of Jacob Hertzler, dated Apr. 22, 1793; probated Jan. 18, 1794.

[21]Richard Glenn Huffman, Genealogy of the George Muma Family: Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania 1732-1971 (Whitney, Pa.: Author, 1971).

[22]Account F-1-532 Lancaster County Archives. Account of Jacob Hertzler, filed Dec. 31, 1794.

[23]Deed D-99. Lancaster County Archives. George Mumma and his wife, Barbara, sell 20 acres of land in Hempfield Township to John New Comat (Newcomer). This document establishes that George Mumma was married to Barbara Weber on July 26, 1750. đ